Так повелось, что на начальных этапах стандартного обучения у нас учат полным грамматическим формам. Это касается отрицания в разных временах, различных временных конструкций с глаголом to be. Привыкнув один раз говорить полностью, ученики испытывают некоторые сложности при переходе на краткие формы.

К тому же, определенную сложность вызывает сокращение » ‘d«, поскольку оно может означать сразу несколько вариантов, впрочем, также, как и » ‘s«. В этой статье мы собрали самые популярные грамматические сокращения, которые есть в английском языке в алфавитном порядке. Надеюсь, они помогут вам сориентироваться.

aren’t = are not
can’t = cannot
couldn’t = could not
didn’t = did not
doesn’t = does not
don’t = do not
hadn’t = had not
haven’t = have not
hasn’t = has not
he’d = he had/ should / would
he’ll = he will
he’s = he is / has
here’s = here is / has
I’d = I had / should / would
I’ll = I shall / will
I’m = I am
I’ve = I have
isn’t = is not
it’ll = it will
it’s = it is / has
let’s = let us
mightn’t = might not
mustn’t = must not
she’d = she had / should / would
she’ll = she will
she’s = she is / has
shouldn’t = should not
that’ll = that will
that’s = that is
there’s = there is / has
they’d = they had / should / would
they’ll = they will
they’re = they are
they’ve = they have
wasn’t = was not
we’d = we had / should / would
we’ll = we shall / will
we’re = we are
weren’t = were not
we’ve = we have
what’s = what is
won’t = will not
wouldn’t = would not
you’d = you had / should / would
you’ll = you will
you’re = you are
you’ve = you have